Many people have many outdoor solar lights in their homes, but do you know how to put solar lights correctly? The photoelectric conversion of the solar flood lights we purchased mainly relies on solar panels. The connection between the solar panel and the battery relies on semiconductors. And semiconductors have their special characteristics.
Solid materials can be divided into three categories: conductors, insulators and semiconductors according to their electrical conductivity. Objects with strong electrical conductivity are called conductors, such as gold, silver, copper, iron, aluminum, etc., and their resistivity is in the range of 10^-8~10^-6Ω·m.
Objects with weak or basically non-conductive conductivity are called insulators, such as rubber, plastic, wood, glass, etc., and their resistivity is in the range of 10^8~10^20Ω·m. Objects whose conductivity is between conductors and insulators are called semiconductors, such as germanium, silicon, gallium arsenide, cadmium sulfide, etc., and their resistivity is about 10^-5~10^7Ω·m. The difference between semiconductor materials and conductors and insulators is not only in the resistivity value, but also in that it has the following characteristics in terms of electrical conductivity
(1) Doping characteristics When a small amount of impurities is added to a pure semiconductor, its resistivity will change greatly, thereby significantly changing the conductivity of the semiconductor. By doping different types of impurities into the same material, semiconductor materials of different conductivity types can be obtained
(2) Temperature characteristics Temperature can significantly change the electrical conductivity of semiconductor materials. In general, the conductivity of semiconductors increases rapidly with temperature, which means that the resistivity of semiconductors has a negative temperature coefficient. For example, when the temperature of germanium increases from 200 ℃ to 300 ℃, its resistivity will be reduced by about half.
(3) Environmental characteristics The conductivity of semiconductors also changes with light, that is, photoconductivity. In addition, the resistivity of some special semiconductors will also change under the action of electric and magnetic fields.
Under this characteristic, within a certain range of temperature rise, the power transmitted from the solar panel to the battery will be more sufficient. From this, we know that we should put the solar panel in a place where the temperature is relatively high. But it can't be in direct sunlight all the time.
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